| TOP | UP to S | DN to U | BOTTOM |

TAB       Tape Automated Bonding

TACS      Total Access Communication System

TAD       Telephone Answering Device

TAP       Telelocator Alphanumeric Protoco

TAPCIS    The Access Program for the CompuServe

          Information Service

TAPI      Telephony Applications Programming Interface

.tar      Tape Archive (archived file name extension) [Unix]

.tar.Z    Compressed Archived files (file name extension) [Unix]

TAS       Telephone Access Server

TASM      Turbo Assembler [Borland]

TAXI      Transparent Asynchronous Transceiver/Receiver Interface

TB        Terabyte (1,024 gigabytes)

          (One Thousand Billion characters of information)

T/B       Top and Bottom

TBBS      The Bread Board System (BBS)

TBGA      Tape Ball Grid Array

.TBK      Toolbook (file name extension)

TBU       Tape Backup Unit

TC        Test Control + Transmission Control

TCL       Tool Command Language

TCM       Trellis-Coded Modulation

TCO       Total Cost of Ownership

TCP       Tape-Carrier Package

TCP/IP    Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

TD        Transmit Data

TDC       Tabular Data Control

TDD       Telecommunications Device for the Deaf

TDtoDP    Tablet Coordinates to Display Coordinates


TDE       Terminal Display Editor

.TDF      Trace Definition File (file name extension) [OS/2] +

          Typeface Definition File (file name extension)

TDI       Transport Device Interface

TDM       Technical Document Management +

          Time Division Multiplexing

TDMA      Time Division Multiple Access

TDMS      Terminal Display Management System

TDP       Tag Distribution Protocol [Cisco] +

          Telelocator Data Protocol

TDSR      Transmitter Data Service Request

TDR       Time Domain Reflectometry

TE/2      Terminal Emulator/2 [Oberon]

TEB       Thread Environment Block

TEC       Tokyo Electronics Corporation

TED       Tiny Editor

TEI       Terminal Endpoint Identifier

TELCO     Telephone Company

TEML      Turbo Editor Macro Language [Borland]

TEMP      Temporary

TER       Thermal Eclipse Reading [Sony]

TERMPWR   Terminator Power

TFDD      Text File Device Driver

TFEL      Thin-Film Electroluminescent

.TFM      Tagged Font Metric (file name extension)

TFT       Thin-Film Transistor (screens)

TFTP      Trivial File Transfer Protocol

THD       Total Harmonic Distortion

.THD      Thread (file name extension)

THOMAS    The (U.S.) House (of Representatives) Open Multimedia

          Access System

THOR      Tandy High-Performance Optical Recording

THR       Transmit Holding Register

.THS      Thesaurus (file name extension)

TI        Texas Instruments, Inc.

TIA       Telecommunications Industry Association +

          The Internet Adapter [Internet]

TID       Target ID

TIES      Time Independent Escape Sequence

.TIF      Tagged Image File (filename extension)

TIFF      Tagged Image File Format

TIGA      Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture

TIGER     Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding

          and Referencing

TIIAP     Telecommunications and Information Infrastructure

          Assistance Program [NII]

TIM       Technical Information Memo [Compaq]

TIMEZONES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - GMT Offsets

                                   Offsets Eastward from GMT (+)

                                   Offsets Westward from GMT (-)

          AST - Atlantic Standard Time          -4:00

          AT  - Azores Time                     -2:00

          AHD - Alaska-Hawaii Daylight           :::

          AHS - Alaska-Hawaii Standard         -10:00

          BLT - Baghdad Local Time              +3:00

          BST - British Summer Time              :::

          CAT - Central Alaska Time            -10:00

          CCT - China Coast Time                +8:00

          CDT - Central Daylight Time            :::

          CET - Central European Time           +1:00

          CLT - Cairo Local Time                +2:00

          CST - Central Standard Time           -6:00

          EAD - East Australian Daylight         :::

          EAS - East Australian Standard       +10:00

          EDT - Eastern Daylight Time            :::

          EET - Eastern European Time           +1:00

          EMT - Eastern Mediterranean           +2:00

          EST - Eastern Standard Time           -5:00

          GMT - Greenwich Mean Time             +0:00

          HST - Hawaii Standard Time           -10:00

          JST - Japanese Standard Time          +9:00

          MDT - Mountain Daylight Time           :::

          MET - Middle European Time            +1:00

          MST - Mountain Standard Time          -7:00

          MTS - Moscow Time Standard            +3:00

          MTD - Moscow Time Daylight             :::

          NT  - Nome Time                      -11:00

          NZT - New Zealand Time               +12:00

          PDT - Pacific Daylight Time            :::

          PST - Pacific Standard Time           -8:00

          PST - Pakistan Standard Time          +5:00

          WAS - West Australian Standard        +7:00

          WAT - West Africa Time                -1:00

          WED - Western Europe Daylight          :::

          WES - Western Europe Standard         +0:00

          YDT - Yukon Daylight Time              :::

          YST - Yukon Standard Time             -9:00

          IDLE- International Date Line East   +12:00

          IDLW- International Date Line West   -12:00

TIMI      Technology Independent Machine Interface [IBM]

TIMS      Text Information Management Systems

TINA      Telecommunication Information Networking Architecture

TIP       Terminal Interface Processor +

          Transaction Internet Protocol

TITOFET   Tunneling-In, Tunneling-Out Field Effect Transistor

TK/TK     Track to Track

TLA       Three-Letter Acronym

TLB       Translation Lookaside Buffer

.TLB      Table (file name extension)

TLD       Top Level Domain

TLI       Transport Layer Interface

TLS       Transport Level Security

TLU       Table Lookup

.TLX      Telex (file name extension)

TM        Trademark

TMDS      Transition Minimized Differential Signaling

.TML      Template (file name extension)

TMP       Temporary

TN        Twisted Nematic

TNC       Terminal Node Controller

TNO       The Netherlands Organization

ToC       Table Of Contents

TOD       Time Of Day

TOP       Technical and Office Protocol

TPC       Transaction-Processing Performance Council

TPF       Transactions Processing Facility [IBM]

TPI       Tracks Per Inch

TPL       Table Producing Language +

          Transaction Processing Language

TPM       Transactions Per Minute

TPORT     Twisted Pair Port Transceiver [AT&T]

TPS       Transactions Per Second +

          Transaction Processing System

TPW       Turbo Pascal for Windows

TQFP      Thin Quad Flat Pack

TQM       Total Quality Management

TR        Terminal Ready

T/R       Transmit/Receive

TRADIC  * Transistorized Airborne Digital Computer

          (Name of first computer to be entirely


.TRM      Terminal (file name extension)

TRN       Threaded Read News [Internet] + Token Ring Network

TRON      The Real-Time Operating System Nucleus

TS        Top Secret

TSA       Target Service Agent + Technical Support Alliance +

          Telephony Services Architecture

TSAPI     Telephony Services Application Program

          Interface [AT&T + Novell]

TSB       Termination Status Block

TSE       The Semware Editor

TSO       Time Sharing Option

TSR       Terminate and Stay Resident

TSS       Task State Segment + Time Sharing System

TS/SI     Top Secret/Sensitive Information

.TST      Test (file name extension)

TSTN      Triple Supertwisted Nematic

TSV       Tab Separated Values

TT        Typewriter Text

TTA       Transport-Triggered Architecture

TTCN      Tree and Tabular Combined Notation

.TTF      TrueType Font (file name extension)

TTL       Transistor-Transistor Logic

TTP       Thermal-Transfer Printing

TTS       Text-To-Speech + Transaction Tracking System

TTY       Teletype

TUCOWS    The Ultimate Collection of Winsock Software

TUI       Text-Based User Interface [WordPerfect]

TUMS      Table Update and Management System [Stanford University]

.TUT      Tutorial (file name extension)

TVF       Table of contents Verbosely from File [UNIX]

TVFS      Toronto Virtual File System [IBM]

TVI       Television Interference

TVOL      Television On-Line

TWAIN     Technology Without Any Interesting Name

          (connection between application and scanner software)

TWX       Teletypewriter Exchange Service

TXD       Transmit Data

.TXF      Tax Exchange Format (file name extension)

TXT       Text

TXT2STF   Text To Structured File [Lotus Agenda]

TZ        Time Zone [Unix]


| TOP | UP to T | DN to V | BOTTOM |

UA        User Agent + User Area

UAE       Unrecoverable Application Error

UAM       User Authentication Method

UART      Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter

UBR       Unspecified Bit Rate

.UC2      Compressed File (file name extension) [UltraCompressor]

UCE       Unsolicited Commercial Email

UCL       Universal Communications Language

UCS       Unicode Conversion Support + Universal Character Set +

          User Coordinate System

UCT       Universal Coordinated Time

UDA       Universal Data Access [Microsoft]

UDC       Universal Decimal Classification + User Defined Commands

UDE       Universal Data Exchange

UDEC    * Universal Digital Electronic Computer [Burroughs]

UDF       Universal Disk Format + User Defined Functions

UDG       User Defined Gateway

UDP       User Datagram Protocol

UDT       Uniform Data Transfer

UFS       Unix File System

UG        User Group

UHCI      Universal Host Controller Interface

UHF       Ultra-High Frequency

UI        Unix International + User Interface

UIC       User Identification Code

UID       User Identifier

UIMS      User Interface Management System

UL        Underwriters Laboratories +

          Unordered List + Upload

ULA       Uncommitted Logic Array

ULN       Universal Link Negotiation

ULSI      Ultra Large Scale Integration

UMA       Unified Memory Architecture

UMB       Upper Memory Block [LIM/AST]

UML       Unified Modeling Language

UNC       Universal Naming Convention +

          Uuencoded Netnews Collator [Unix]

UNCOL     Universal Computed Oriented Language

UNI       User-Network Interface

UNICOM    Universal Integrated Communication (System)

UNICOS    Universal Compiler FORTRAN compatible

UNII      Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure

UNIVAC    Universal Automatic Computer

UNIX      (AT&T Bell Laboratories Operating System)

UNMA      Unified Network Management Architecture

UP        Uniprocessor

UPC       Universal Product/Program Code + User Parameter Control

UPG       Upgrade

UPL       User Program Language

UPM       Unix Programmer's Manual +

          User Profile Management [IBM]

UPS       Uninterruptible Power Supply/System

URC       Uniform Resource Characteristics +

          Uniform Resource Citation

UREP      Unix RSCS Emulation Protocol (protocol)

URI       Uniform Resource Identifier

URL       Uniform Resource Locator

URN       Uniform Resource Name/Number

US        Unit Separator

USART     Universal Synchronous-Asynchronous Reciever/Transmitter

USB       Universal Serial Bus [Intel]

USENET    User's Network [Internet]

USERID    User Identification

USOC      Universal Service Ordering Code

USQ       Unsqueezed (files)

USR       US Robotics (corporation)

USRT      Universal Synchronous Receiver/Transmitter

USSA      User Supported Software Association (United Kingdom)

UT        User Terminal

UTC       Coordinated Universal Time

UTI       Universal Text Interchange/Interface

UTP       Unshielded Twisted-Pair (cable)

UU        Uuencode/Uudecode

UUCP      Unix-To-Unix Copy Program

UUD       UUDecoding [Unix]

UUDECODE  Unix-To-Unix Decoding

UUE       UUEncoding [Unix]

UUENCODE  Unix-To-Unix Encoding

UUI       User-To-User Information [AT&T]

UUID      Universal Unique Identifier

UV        Ultraviolet


| TOP | UP to U | DN to W | BOTTOM |

VA        Virtual Address + Visual Age [IBM]

VAD       Value Added Dealer

VADD      Value Added Disk Driver

VADSL     Very-High-Rate Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

VAL       Value + Voice Application Language

.VAL      Validity Checks (file name extension) [Paradox]

VAM       Virtual Access Method

VAN       Value Added Network

VAP       Value Added Process

VAR       Value Added Reseller + Value Added Retailer + Variable

VAST      Variable Array Storage Technology

VAX/VMS   Virtual Address Extension/Virtual Memory System [DEC]

VB        Variable Block + Visual Basic [Microsoft]

VBA       Visual Basic for Applications [Microsoft]

VBE/AI    Vesa Bios Extension/Audio Interface

VBI       Vertical Blanking Interval

VBNS      Very High Speed Backbone Network Service [MCI + NSF]

VBR       Variable Bit Rate

VBRUN     Visual Basic Runtime

.VBX      Visual Basic Extension (file name extension)

VCC       Virtual Channel Connection

VCD       Virtual Communications Driver

VCI       Virtual Circuit Identifier

VCL       Visual Component Library

VCOS      Visual Caching Operating System [AT&T]

VCPI      Virtual Control Program Interface

VCR       Video Cassette Recorder

VDD       Virtual Device Driver

VDDM      Virtual Device Driver Manager

VDE       Video Display Editor + Visual Development Environment

VDISK     Virtual Disk

VDM       Virtual DOS Machine [IBM]

VDMAD     Virtual Direct Memory Access Device [Microsoft]

VDS       Virtual DMA Services

VDSL      Very-High-Data-Rate Digital Subscriber Line

VDT       Video Dial Tone + Video Display Terminal

VDU       Video Display Unit + Visual Display Unit

VEGA      Video-7 Enhanced Graphics Adapter [Video-7, Inc.]

VEMM      Virtual Expanded Memory Manager

VEMMI     Versatile Multimedia Interface

VER       Verify + Version

VERONICA  Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-Wide Index to

          Computer Archives [Internet]

VERR      Verify Read Access

VERW      Verify Write Access

VES       Video Encoding Standard [Oracle]

VESA      Video Electronics Standards Association

VF        Virtual Floppy

VFAT      Virtual File Allocation Table [Microsoft]

V.FC      Version.First Class (communications standard)

VFD       Vacuum Fluorescent Display

VFW       Video For Windows [Microsoft]

VGA       Video Graphics Array

VGC       Video Graphics Controller

VHDL      VHSIC Hardware Description Language

VHF       Very-High Frequency

VHS       Very High Speed + Video Home System +

          Virtual Host Storage

VHSIC     Very High Speed Integrated Circuit

VI        Visual Interactive (editor) [UNIX]

VIA       Virtual Interface Architecture [Intel]

VIE       Virtual Information Environment

VIF       Virtual Interface + Virtual Interrupt Flag

VIM       Vendor Independent Mail +

          Vendor Independent Messaging + Video Interface Module

VIO       Video Input/Output + Virtual Input/Output

VINES     Virtual Networking System [Banyan]

ViP       Visual Programming [Lotus]

VIP       Variable Information Processing +

          Video Information Provider +

          Virtual Interrupt Pending

VIPER     Verifiable Integrated Processor for

          Enhanced Reliability

VIS       Video Information System [Tandy] +

          Visual Instruction Set [Sun] +

          Voice Information System

VJ HEADER Van Jacobsen Header (compression) [Unix]

VLAN      Virtual Local Area Network

VL-BUS    Vesa Local-Bus [VESA]

VLD       Variable-Length Decoder

VLF       Very Low Frequency

VLINK     Visited Link [HTML]

VLIW      Very Large Instruction Word

VLM       Virtual Loadable Module

VLSI      Very Large Scale Integration

VLSIPS    Very Large Scale Immobilized Polymer Synthesis

VLT       Variable List Table

VM        Virtual Machine + Virtual Memory

VMA       Virtual Memory Address

VMB       Virtual Machine Boot

VME       Versa Module Eurocard +

          Virtual Memory Environment

VMM       Virtual Machine/Memory Manager

VMOS      Vertical MOS

VMP       Virtual Modem Protocol

VMS       Virtual Machine Storage + Virtual Memory System +

          Voice Message System

VMT       Virtual Memory Technique

VNA       Virtual Network Architecture

VOC       Creative Voice (format) [Sound Blaster]

VOD       Video On Demand

VOL       Volume

VOM       Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter

VOR       Visions Of Reality

VOS       Verbal/Voice Operating System

VP        Virtual Path

VPD       Virtual Printer Device + Vital Product Data [IBM]

VPDN      Virtual Private Data Network

VPDS      Virtual Private Data Service [MCI]

VPE       Video Port Extensions [Microsoft] +

          Visual Programming Environment

VPL       Virtual Programming Language

VPM       Video Port Manager

VPN       Virtual Page Number + Virtual Private Network

VPS       Voice Processing System

VPSC      Vault, Process, Structure, Configuration

VPT       Virtual Print Technology [Dataproducts]

VR        Virtual Reality + Voltage Regulated/Regulator

VRAM      Video Random Access Memory

VRD       Virtual Retinal Display

VRE       Voltage Regulated Extended

VRM       Voltage Regulator Module

VRML      Virtual Reality Modeling Language

          (originally named Virtual Reality Markup Language)

VROOMM    Virtual Real-time Object Oriented

          Memory Manager [Borland]

.VRS      WordPerfect Graphics Driver (file name extension)

VRT       Voltage Regulation Technology [Intel]

VRU       Voice Response Unit

VS        Virtual Storage

VSAM      Virtual Storage Access Method

VSAT      Very Small Aperture Terminal

VSE       Virtual Storage Extended

VSF       Vertical Scanning Frequency

VSI       Virtual Socket Interface

VSIO      Virtual Serial Input Output

VSM       Virtual Shared Memory + Virtual Storage Management +

          Visual System Management [IBM]

VSN       Volume Serial Number

VSOS      Virtual Storage Operating System

VSYNC     Vertical Sync

VT        Vertical Tab

VTAM      Virtual Telecommunications Access Method [IBM]

VTNS      Virtual Telecommunications Network Service

VUI       Video User Interface

VUP       VAX Unit of Performance

VMS       Virtual Memory System + Voice Message System

VWB       Visual WorkBench [Microsoft]

VxD       Virtual Extended Driver [Microsoft]

.VXD      Virtual Device (file name extension) [Microsoft]

V&V       Verification and Validation


| TOP | UP to V | DN to X | BOTTOM |

W/        With

W3        (see WWW)

W3A       World Wide Web Applets

W3C       World Wide Web Consortium

W4        What-Works-With-What

WAAS      Wide Area Augmentation System

WABI      Windows Application Binary Interface [SunSoft]

WAI       Web Application Interface [Netscape]

WAIS      Wide Area Information Server

WAITI     Wait-For-Interrupt

WAITS     Wide Area Information Transfer System

WAN       Wide Area Network

WATS      Wide Area Telecommunications Service

.WAV      Waveform Audio (file name extension)

WBEM      Web-Based Enterprise Management

WC        Word Count

WCS       World Coordinate System

WDL       Windows Driver Library [Microsoft]

WDM       Wavelength Division Multiplexing +

          Windows Driver Model [Microsoft]

WDRAM     Windows Dynamic Random Access Memory

.WEB      Entities Emphasizing the WWW (Domain Name) [Internet]

WebNFS    Web Network File System [Sun]

WELL      Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (BBS)

WFM       Wired For Management [Intel]

WFW       Windows For Workgroups [Microsoft]

WGS       Work Group System

WHAM      Waveform Hold and Modify [Microsoft]

WHC       Workstation Host Connection

WINE      Windows Emulator

WINForum  Wireless Information Networks Forum

WINS      Windows-Internet Naming Service [Microsoft]

WINSOCK   Windows Open Systems Architecture [Microsoft] +

          Windows Sockets

WINWORD   Word For Windows [Microsoft]

WISE      WordPerfect Information System Environment

WIT       Web Interactive Talk [Internet]

.WKB      Workbook (file name extension) [WordPerfect]

.WKE      Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]

.WKQ      Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORQU]

.WKS      Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]

.WKZ      Compressed Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORQU]

.WK1      Worksheet (file name extension) [Lotus 1-2-3] [LDC]

WL        Word Line

WMC       Workflow Management Coalition

.WMF      Windows Metafile Format (file name extension) [Microsoft]

WNIC      Wide-Area Network Interface Co-Processor

WNIM      Wide-Area Network Interface Module

W/O       Without

WORM      Write Once, Read Many

WOS       Workstation Operating System

WOSA      Windows Open Services/Systems Architecture [Microsoft]

WP        WordPerfect + Word Processing + Write Protected

.WPD      Windows Printer Description (file name extension)

.WPG      WordPerfect Graphics (file name extension)

WPHD      Write-Protect Hard Disk

.WPK      Keyboard (file name extension) [WordPerfect]

WPM       Words Per Minute

.WPM      Macro (file name extension) [WordPerfect]

WPOS      Workplace Operating System

WPS       Windows Printing System [Microsoft] +

          Workplace Shell [OS2]

WPVM      Windows Parallel Virtual Machine

.WQ1      Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORPQU]

.WQ!      Compressed Spreadsheet (file name extension) [BORPQU]

WRAM      Windows Random Access Memory

.WRI      Write (file name extension)

WRK       Windows Resource Kit [Microsoft]

WS        WordStar + Workstation

WSAPI     Web Site Application Program Interface [O'Reilly]

WSH       Windows Scripting Host [Microsoft]

WT        Write Through

WTM       Wired For Management

WWIS      World Wide Information System [Internet]

WWW       World-Wide Web [Internet]

WYSBYGI   What You See Before You Get It

WYSIWYG   What You See Is What You Get


| TOP | UP to W | DN to Y | BOTTOM |

XA        Extended Architecture + Extended Attribute

XAPIA     X.400 Application Program Interface Association

X2B       Hexadecimal to Binary [REXX]

.XBM      X-Windows Bitmaps (file name extension) (black and white)

.XPM      X-Windows Pixelmaps (file name extension) (color)

X2C       Hexadecimal to Character [REXX]

XCHG      Exchange

XCMD      External Command

XCOPY     Extended Copy

X2D       Hexadecimal to Decimal [REXX]

XDF       Extended Density Format [IBM]

XDR       Extended/External Data Representation

XFCN      External Function

XGA       Extended Graphics Array [IBM]

XID       Exchange Identifier

XIOS      Extended Input/Output System

.XLA      Add-In (file name extension) [Microsoft-Excel]

XLAT      Translate

.XLK      Backup (file name extension) [Microsoft-Excel]

XLL       Extensible Link Language

XLM       Excel Macro Language [Microsoft]

.XLT      Template (file name extension) [Microsoft-Excel]

XMIT      Transmit

XML       Extensible Markup Language

XMM       Extended Memory Manager [LIM/AST]

XMS       Extended Memory Specification [LIM/AST]

XNS       Xerox Network System (protocol) [Xerox]

XOFF      Transmitter Off

XON       Transmitter On

XOR       Exclusive OR (Also EOR)

XPRM      Xerox Print Resources Manager [Xerox]

XRT       Extensions for Real-Time

XSL       Extensible Style Language

XSMD      Extended Storage Module Drive (interface)

XSSI      Extended Server Side Includes

XTAL      Crystal

XTCLK     External Transmit Clock


| TOP | UP to X | DN to Z | BOTTOM |

YAM       Yet Another Modem [Omen Technology]

YAHOO     Yet Another Hierarchically Officious Oracle [Internet]

Y2K       Year 2000

(Y/N)?    (Asks for a YES or NO decision)

YTD       Year To Date



.z        Packed file (file name extension - using Pack/Unpack

          program)..lower case z..[Unix]

.Z        Compressed file (file name extension - using

          Compress/Uncompress program)..upper case Z..[Unix]

ZAK       Zero Administration Kit [Microsoft]

ZAW       Zero Administration for Windows [Microsoft]

ZBR       Zone-Bit Recording [IBM]

Z-CAV     Zoned Constant Angular Velocity

ZDL       Zero Delay Lockout

ZDS       Zenith Data Systems

ZIF       Zero-Insertion Force (socket)

ZIP       Zigzag In-Line Package +

          Zone Improvement Plan (ZIPcode)

.ZIP      Compressed File (file name extension) [PKWare]

.ZOO      Compressed File (file name extension) [Dhesi]

ZPV       Zoomed Port Video [Toshiba]

ZSL       Zero Slot LAN

@         At + Commercial At

~         Tilde

*         Wildcard character (asterisk)

*.*       Star-Dot-Star (represents

          Any file name.Any file name extension)

.$$$      Temporary File (file name extension)

1GL       First General Language (machine language)

286       80286 (microprocessor)

2GL       Second Generation Language (assembly language)

386       80386 (microprocessor)

3COM      3 Com Corporation (The 3 Coms are

          Computer, Communications and Compatibility)

3GL       Third Generation Language (programming language)

486       80486 (microprocessor)

4GL       Fourth Generation Language (descriptive language)

6DOF      Six Degrees Of Freedom


Copyright (C) 1989-1999 Irving & Richard Kind All Rights Reserved c/o K & D, One Church Lane, Baltimore, MD 21208 Jan 1999 version = 99A Jan 2000 version = 00A May 1999 version = 99B May 2000 version = 00B Sep 1999 version = 99C Sep 2000 version = 00C ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++




To obtain the latest version of BABEL, use any of these methods:

HTML Format..........





TEXT Format..........




        At Login,    type: anonymous

        At Password, type: your e-mail address

        cd /pub/access/ikind/public_html

        get babeltxt.zip




        From your favorite Bulletin Board, download



NOTE for all methods:


After Jan 1, 1999 BABEL.TXT, .HTML or .ZIP will contain Version 99A

After May 1, 1999 BABEL.TXT, .HTML or .ZIP will contain Version 99B

After Sep 1, 1999 BABEL.TXT, .HTML or .ZIP will contain Version 99C





    The following examples are included to only serve as a very

brief introduction to what may be found when reading email and news

groups and when using IRC on the Internet.


                        - - - - - - -


    In email and news, "smiley faces" (emoticoms), rather than


are used to express the writer's feelings.  Turn your head to the

side to read them.


        :-)     Smile           :-D     Laughing


        :-]     Smirk           :-(     Frown


        ;-)     Wink            :-X     Close-mouthed


        8-)     Wide-eyed       :-O     Open-mouthed




        <jk>    Just kidding    <g>     Grin


                        - - - - - - -


    In email and during on-line conversations, a variety of letter

groups are used to abbreviate the writer's comments, such as:


    BRB   Be right back         IMHO   In my humble opinion


    BTW   By the way            ROFL   Rolling on the floor



    FOAF  Friend of a friend    TIA    Thanks in advance






    At the present time there are over 200 recognized Country

Domain names.  Two-letter abbreviations that represent the

country names are used in addresses seen on the Internet.  The

following names (132 to date) represent the country of origin

from where someone has downloaded BABEL (babel.html).  This list

should be useful when checking the origin of your own mail.


        .ad     Andorra

        .ae     United Arab Emirates

        .ag     Antigua and Barbuda

        .al     Albania

        .am     Armenia

        .ar     Argentina

        .at     Austria

        .au     Australia

        .aw     Aruba

        .ba     Bosnia-Herzegovina

        .be     Belgium

        .bg     Bulgaria

        .bh     Bahrain

        .bm     Bermuda

        .bn     Brunei Darussalam

        .bo     Bolivia

        .br     Brazil

        .bs     Bahamas

        .bw     Botswana

        .by     Belarus

        .bz     Belize

        .ca     Canada

        .ch     Switzerland

        .ci     Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)

        .cl     Chile

        .cn     China

        .co     Colombia

        .cr     Costa Rica

        .cy     Cyprus

        .cz     Czech Republic

        .de     Germany

        .dk     Denmark

        .dm     Dominica

        .do     Dominican Republic

        .ec     Ecuador

        .ee     Estonia

        .eg     Egypt

        .es     Spain

        .et     Ethiopia

        .fi     Finland

        .fo     Faroe Islands

        .fr     France

        .gb     Great Britian

        .ge     Georgia

        .gl     Greenland

        .gr     Greece

        .gt     Guatemala

        .gu     Guam

        .gy     Guyana

        .hk     Hong Kong

        .hn     Honduras

        .hr     Croatia

        .hu     Hungary

        .id     Indonesia

        .ie     Ireland

        .il     Israel

        .in     India

        .ir     Iran

        .is     Iceland

        .it     Italy

        .jm     Jamaica

        .jo     Jordan

        .jp     Japan

        .ke     Kenya

        .kg     Kyrgyzstan

        .kr     Korea (South)

        .kw     Kuwait

        .kz     Kazakhstan

        .lb     Lebanon

        .lc     Saint Lucia

        .li     Liechtenstein

        .lk     Sri Lanka

        .lt     Lithuania

        .lu     Luxembourg

        .lv     Latvia

        .ma     Morocco

        .mc     Monaco

        .md     Moldova

        .mk     Macedonia

        .mn     Mongolia

        .mo     Macau

        .mt     Malta

        .mu     Mauritius

        .my     Malaysia

        .mx     Mexico

        .na     Namibia

        .nc     New Caledonia (French)

        .ng     Nigeria

        .ni     Nicaragua

        .nl     Netherlands

        .no     Norway

        .np     Nepal

        .nu     Niue

        .nz     New Zealand

        .om     Oman

        .pa     Panama

        .pe     Peru

        .pf     Polynesia (French)

        .pg     Papua New Guinea

        .ph     Phillipines

        .pk     Pakistan

        .pl     Poland

        .pt     Portugal

        .py     Paraguay

        .qa     Qatar

        .ro     Romania

        .ru     Russian Federation

        .se     Sweden

        .sg     Singapore

        .si     Slovenia

        .sk     Slovak Republic

        .su     USSR (former)

        .sv     El Salvador

        .th     Thailand

        .tn     Tunisia

        .tr     Turkey

        .tt     Trinidad and Tobago

        .tw     Taiwan

        .ug     Uganda

        .uk     United Kingdom

        .us     United States

        .uy     Uruguay

        .uz     Uzbekistan

        .ve     Venezuela

        .vi     Virgin Islands (USA)

        .vn     Vietnam

        .ye     Yemen

        .yu     Yugoslavia

        .za     South Africa

        .zm     Zambia

        .zw     Zimbabwe





SUBMITTING A NEW ENTRY....Each submitted entry is first verified before inclusion into BABEL. Please let me know where you have seen your submission used or described; i.e., name of publication, page number, who uses it, where it is used, etc., in order that your entry may be verified from this end.

Submit your entry via e-mail to: ikind@mcimail.com Include the word Babel or Glossary in your Subject.


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For the HTML version, download babel.html or babelhtm.zip and save it on a floppy disk or on your hard drive. Use your browser to locate any entry instantly.

For Printing, use the TEXT version. Download babeltxt.zip, unzip it, and set your printer for sixty (60) lines per page, with a six (6) character left hand margin, using 8-1/2" x 11" paper. Punch holes for a loose leaf binder and keep it on your desk. Again, instant access. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

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